Getting Started with xUnit.net

Using .NET Framework with JetBrains Rider

In this article, we will demonstrate getting started with xUnit.net using JetBrains Rider. These instructions apply to all JetBrains Rider supported platforms (macOS, Linux, and Windows).

Note: The examples were done with xUnit.net v2.4 and JetBrains Rider 2018.3 on macOS. The version numbers, paths, and JetBrains Rider UI may differ for you, depending on which version you're using.

Create a test project

In our example, we have a solution with a single project called Sandbox, which has a class that implements a primitive calculator.

namespace Sandbox
{
   public class Calculator
   {
       public static int Add(int x, int y) => x + y;
       public static int Subtract(int x, int y) => x - y;
   }
}

To test our calculator, let's start by creating a project for our xUnit.net tests. In the Solution Explorer, right-click the solution and choose Add > New Project...:

Creating a new xUnit.net test project

Choose the Unit Test Project template targeting .NET 4.5.2 or later, select xUnit as the project type, and provide some telling name for it, e.g. Tests.

Creating a new xUnit.net test project. Project properties

When you click Create, the new test project with all necessary configurations and references will be added to our solution.

Write your first tests

When you created the test project, JetBrains Rider automatically created a file named Tests.cs with a stub for our first test and opened it for you. Let's edit the test stub to target our calculator class:

using Sandbox;
using Xunit;

namespace Tests
{
   public class Tests
   {
       [Fact]
       public void PassingTest()
       {
           Assert.Equal(4, Calculator.Add(2, 2));
       }

       [Fact]
       public void FailingTest()
       {
           Assert.Equal(5, Calculator.Add(2, 2));
       }
   }
}

Note: If you copy-pasted the above code to the Tests.cs file, the Calculator usage will be highlighted as unresolved because the Sandbox project is not referenced in our test project. You can press Alt+Enter on the highlighted usage to add the missing project reference.

Build the solution to ensure that the code compiles. Now that you've written the first tests, let's run them. You can click the unit test icon next to the test class and choose Run All to run all tests in that class.

Running xUnit.net tests in Rider

Rider will start the tests and bring up the Unit Tests window where you can see test status and results.

Analyzing xUnit.net test results in Rider

As expected, the PassingTest has passed and the FailingTest has failed.

Write your first theory

You may have wondered why your first unit tests use an attribute named [Fact] rather than one with a more traditional name like Test. xUnit.net includes support for two different major types of unit tests: facts and theories. When describing the difference between facts and theories, we like to say:

Facts are tests which are always true. They test invariant conditions.

Theories are tests which are only true for a particular set of data.

So you will need a theory to write a data-driven test — a test that can work with multiple data sets. For example, we can test our calculator with different input values and expected sums. Note that feeding an incorrect sum value into such test would cause it fail, and not because the calculator or test is wrong.

Let's add a theory to our existing facts (including a bit of bad data, so we can see it fail):

[Theory]
[InlineData(2, 2, 4)]
[InlineData(3, 3, 6)]
[InlineData(2, 2, 5)]
public void MyTheory(int x, int y, int sum)
{
   Assert.Equal(sum, Calculator.Add(x, y));
}

This time when we run our tests, we see a failure for our theory when it was given a sum of 5 for 2 and 2:

Analyzing test results for xUnit.net theory in Rider

Although we've only written 3 test methods, the test runner actually ran 5 tests; that's because each theory with its data set is a separate test. Note also that the runner tells you exactly which set of data failed, because it displays the argument values.

Next steps

As you write more tests, you may end up having a lot of files or directories in your test project, or you can even have multiple test projects in your solution. In such situation, using editor controls (as demonstrated above) will not be the most convenient way to run multiple tests. Instead, you can locate a solution, project, or any node containing unit tests in the Solution Explorer, right-click on it and choose Run Unit Tests. Or alternatively, you can browse all tests in the solution on the Explorer tab of the Unit Tests window and run tests from there.

Exploring xUnit.net tests in Rider

Copyright © .NET Foundation. Contributions welcomed at https://github.com/xunit/xunit.github.io.